Chinese Academy of Sciences
The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) was founded in Beijing on November 1, 1949. Based on a nationwide survey of scientific organizations and manpower, the principal scientific institutions which existed at that time in China were quickly reassembled. There were a group of famous scientists who held the leading post at different levels of CAS then, and over 200 scientists, who were then residing abroad, decided to come back to China at that time. Those were the pioneers who laid the cornerstone for the science and technology development of China today.
In 1955, the Chinese Academy of Sciences Academic Divisions was set up in Beijing. In 1956, the Central Government gave full opportunity to CAS to organize a nationwide scientific and technological brainstorm to design the Long-term Outline Program for Scientific and Technological Development from 1956 to 1967, which resulted in the start of the drive towards modernization of science and technology in China. During this period, CAS made important contributions in assisting large-scale economic build up of the country. At the same time, CAS achieved great scientific outcomes regarding the total synthesis of bovine insulin, as well as with the integrated research on the rise of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and its impact on natural environment. Both scientific outcomes showed at the time how the gap in science and technology between China and the most advanced countries in the world had been narrowed.